Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
========== From Brahma Sutra 2.3.19-32 ==========
“Yavadatmabhavitvacca na doshastaddarsanat”
[Brahma Sutra II.3.30 (246)]
” And there is no defect or fault in what has been said in the previous Sutra (as the conjunction of the soul with the intellect exists) so long as the soul (in its relative aspect) exists; because it is so seen (in the scriptures). ”
An additional reason is given in support of Sutra 29.
The Purvapakshin or the opponent raises an objection. Very well, let us then assume that the transmigratory condition of the soul is due to the qualities of the intellect forming its essence. It will follow from this that, as the conjunction of the intellect and soul which are different entities must necessarily come to an end, the soul when disjoined from the intellect will either cease to exist altogether or at least cease to be a Samsarin (individual soul).
To this objection this Sutra gives a reply. There can be no such defect in the argument of the previous Sutra, because this connection with the Buddhi (intellect) lasts so long as the soul’s state of Samsara is not brought to an end by means of perfect knowledge. As long as the soul’s connection with the Buddhi, its limiting adjunct lasts, so long the individual soul remains individual soul, involved in transmigratory existence.
There is no Jiva or individual soul without identification with intellect. The connection of the soul with the intellect will cease only by right knowledge. The scripture declares
“I know that Person of sunlike lustre beyond darkness. A man who knows Him passes over death, there is no other path to go”
(Svet. Up. III.8).
How is it known that the soul is connected with the Buddhi as long as it exists ?
We reply, because that is seen, viz., in scripture. It is known from the Srutis that this connection is not severed even at death. The scripture declares,
“He who is within the heart, consisting of knowledge, surrounded by Pranas, the person of light, he remaining the same wanders along the two worlds as if thinking, as if moving” (Bri. Up. IV.3.7).
Here the term “consisting of knowledge” means ‘consisting of Buddhi’. The passage “He remaining in the same wanders along the two worlds” declares that the Self, even when going to another world, is not separated from the Buddhi etc. The term “as if thinking,” “as if moving” mean that the individual soul does not think and move on its own account, but only through its association with the Buddhi. The individual soul thinks as it were, and moves as it were, because the intellect to which it is joined really moves and thinks.
The connection of the individual soul with the intellect, its limiting adjunct, depends on wrong knowledge. Wrong knowledge (Mithyajnana) cannot cease except through perfect knowledge. Therefore, as long as there does not arise the realisation of Brahman or Brahmajnana, so long the connection of the soul with the intellect and its other limiting adjuncts does not come to an end.
“Pumstvadivat tvasya sato’bhivyaktiyogat”
[Brahma Sutra II.3.31 (247)]
” On account of the appropriateness of the manifestation of that (connection) which exists (potentially) like virile power, etc. ”
A proof is now given in support of Sutra 29 by showing the perpetual connection between the individual soul and the intellect. The word ‘tu’ (but), is used in order to set aside the objection raised above.
An objection is raised that in Sushupti or deep sleep and Pralaya there can be no connection with the intellect, as the scripture declares,
“Then he becomes united with the True; he is gone to his own” (Chh. Up. VI.8.1).
How then can it be said that the connection with the intellect lasts so long as the individual soul exists ?
The Sutra refutes it and says that this connection exists in a subtle or potential form even in deep sleep. Had it not been for this, it could not have become manifest in the waking state. Such connection is clear from the appropriateness of such connection becoming manifest during creation, after dissolution and during the waking state after sleep, as in the case of virility dormant in boyhood and manifest in manhood.
The connection of the soul with the intellect exists potentially during deep sleep and the period of dissolution and again becomes manifest at the time of waking and the time of creation.
Virile power becomes manifest in manhood only if it exists in a fine or potential state in the body. Hence this connection with the intellect lasts so long as the soul exists in its Samsara-state.
[Brahma Sutra II.3.32 (248)]
” Otherwise (if no intellect existed) there would result either constant perception or constant non-perception, or else a limitation of either of the two (i.e., of the soul or of the senses). ”
The internal organ (Antahkarana) which constitutes the limiting adjunct of the soul is called in different places by different names such as Manas (mind), Buddhi (intellect), Vijnana (knowledge), and Chitta (thought) etc. When it is in a state of doubt it is called Manas; when it is in a state of determination it is called Buddhi. Now we must necessarily acknowledge the existence of such an internal organ, because otherwise there would result either perpetual perception or perpetual non-perception. There would be perpetual perception whenever there is a conjunction of the soul, and senses and the objects of senses, the three together forming the instruments of perception. Or else, if on the conjunction of the three causes the effect did not follow, there would be perpetual non-perception. But neither of these two alternatives is actually observed.
Or else we will have to accept the limitation of the power either of the soul or of the senses. But the limiting of power is not possible, as the Atman is changeless. It cannot be said that the power of the senses which is not obstructed either in the previous moment or in the subsequent moment is limited in the middle.
Therefore we have to acknowledge the existence of an internal organ (Antahkarana) through whose connection and disconnection perception and non-perception take place. The scripture declares,
“My mind was elsewhere, I did not see, my mind was elsewhere, I did not hear; for a man sees with his mind and hears with the mind” (Bri. Up. I.5.3).
The scripture further shows that desire, representation, doubt, faith, want of faith, memory, forgetfulness, shame, reflection, fear, all this is mind.
Therefore there exists an internal organ, the Antahkarana, and the connection of the soul with the internal organ causes the Atman to appear as the individual soul or as the soul its Samsara state as explained in Sutra 29. The explanation given in Sutra 29 is therefore an appropriate one.