Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
THE DHRUVA STAMBHA
विष्णुपदे गिरौ भगवतो विष्नोर्ध्वज: स्थापित:
Viṣṇu-pada-giri- Viṣṇu is one of the three aspects of Brahma indicated by 2nd pāda of Gāyatrī-mantra. We cannot see the original creator, but can know about sun as it is radiating light (Bhargah). As sun, it is holding earth as stated in common mantra of Bhūmi-pūjana-
पृथिवि त्वया धृता लोका देवि त्वं विष्णुना धृता ।
In same way Hercules also is stated that he was holding earth-as depicted on trade-marks of Hercules cycles. Thus, Hercules means sun here. Atlas also is stated that it had lifted earth on its shoulders. Mountains have been called Bhūdhara, as they hold the continental shelf of earth. Thus, mount Atlas is holding earth on its shoulder. In space, 3 steps of Viṣṇu are 3 zones of solar system, starting with sun at center. Zone up to 100 sun-diameters is reason of intense heat (Tapa).
शत योजने ह वा एष (आदित्य) इतस्तपति (कौषीतकि ब्राह्मण उपनिषद् ८/३) स एष (आदित्यः) एक शतविधस्तस्य रश्मयः । शतविधा एष एवैक शततमो य एष तपति (शतपथ ब्राह्मण १०/२/४/३)
Then, up to 1000 diameters (sphere enclosing Saturn orbit) is zone of brightness (Sahasrāmśu, sahasrākśa etc).
युक्ता ह्यस्य (इन्द्रस्य) हरयः शतादशेति । सहस्रं हैत आदित्यस्य रश्मयः
(इन्द्रः=आदित्यः) जैमिनीय उपनिषद् ब्राह्मण १/४४/५) असौ यस्ताम्रो अरुण उत बभ्रुः सुमङ्गलः । ये चैनं रुद्रा अभितो दिक्षु श्रिताः सहस्रोऽवैषां हेड ईमहे ॥
Then, light (normal) zone is up to 100,000 diameters (Maitreya Maṇḍala).-Vişņu purāņa (2/8) On earth, motion of sun is from Karka- rekhā (240 north) to Makara- rekhā (240 south). For north hemisphere, equator till 240 north is step 1. 3 steps will reach 720, but before that Arctic circle starts at 660. Thus, the third step is on head of earth, i.e. on head of its owner king Bali. Viṣṇu was the proper name of Vāmana as stated at several places in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa etc. He was not a dwarf man, but small compared to steps of sun which he meant. Body of sun is in solar system, sphere of solid planets is Dadhi- Vāmana (size of Dadhi Samudra in Bhāgavata purāṇa, skandha 5). Within human body, soul (size of atom-10000 parts of hair end in Śvetāśvatara upaniṣad (5/9)-
वालाग्र शत भागस्य शतधा कल्पितस्य च ॥ भागो जीवः स विज्ञेयः स चानन्त्याय कल्पते ॥ (श्वेताश्वतर उपनिषद्, ५/९)
Thus, Viṣṇu-pada on earth is a place at Karka-rekhā. Now, it is at 23.50 north, in past it was up to about 260 north. Thus, it was touching Mithilā in time of king Nimi (son of Ikśvāku) and once Naimiśāraṇya, near Lucknow. Motion of sun on earth ends at its Nemi, south end is Ariṣṭa-nemi as it is coldest time in north hemisphere. Sun is eye, and its ends on earth are its eyebrows (Place of King Nimi). In Mahābhārata period, Karka-rekhā was at Gayā, so it was called Viṣṇu-pada-Tīrtha and still called, though it is now north of it. Gayā or any mountain on Karka-rekhāi is Viṣṇu-pada-Giri.
In Sūrya-siddhānta an all texts of astronomy, a Śanku (cone) of 12 angulas is used for measuring its shadow. Whatever may be height of Śanku, its 12 part is called 1 angula. That is used for finding north south direction, latitude, local time, or declination of sun. Since sun is Viṣṇu, it is Viṣṇu-dhvaja. In same sense, it is pillar of Hercules. In Śiva purāṇa, his linga also is stated to be of 12 angula- in that context it may mean the same. Measurement of north-south direction is by shadow end of pole at equal intervals of local true noon, say at 11 AM and at 1 PM. The path of shadow is in shape of Thistle-kip called Kutupa (Kuppi in Hindi). That time also is called Kutupa-muhūrtta (1136 to 1224 hrs) which is considered in Śrāddha. That, shadow is bisected by 2 arcs whose common point is in shape of Mīna (fish) to find north-south direction. So, any device to find north direction is called Kutub-minar. Magnetic compass was called Kutub-numa in Arabic. Technically, Delhi cannot be called Viṣṇu-pada-Giri as it is about 50 north of old position of Karka-rekhā. So, it is assumed that Iron pillar was originally built at a hill near Ujjain or Gaya and shifted there. But it will be far easier to construct it at Delhi itself rather than transporting to such distance. Actually, Kutub-minar is inclined 50 south and is thus perpendicular on Karka-rekhā. Thus, the place can be called Viṣṇu-pada-Giri as artificial construction. It is northernmost position of moon in pre-Mahabharata era. Megasthenese has stated that Hercules had constructed Palibothri town or a pillar there. That pillar of Hercules can mean Kutub-Minar.Palibothri was on banks of Yamunā, but without any basis it has been equated with Pataliputra (Patna in Bihar). Actually, it was Paribhadra which means same as Dehali in sanskrit-boundary wall of a house. It was place of army of Kuru kings based at Hastināpuara on banks of Ganga. The army itself has been called Prabhadraka-gaṇa under command of Dhṛṣṭa-dyumna. Elephant army was at Gajāhvaya (Gaziabad). Persons in that army have title of Gajabhiye in Maharashtra. Mahārathis were based at Meratha (written as Meerut). Al-biruni has stated Sri Harsha Shaka from 456 BC-that might be date of this pillar. Rājatarangiṇī also give same time of that king who had installed Mātṛgupta as king of Kashmir. Ibn-Batuta has written that Kutub-minar was built 1500 years before Kutub-ud-Din Aibak (1206-1210). Sir Saiyad Ahmed had protested calling Kutub-minar an Islamic structure as it was full of Hindu marks. He wrote a 300 page book in 1911 to prove his point.
It is not a question of Hindu or Islamic marks. 2 aspects of technology were impossible in 13th century-(1) Even now it is very difficult to build an accurate cone whose axis is inclined 50 south.
(2) From Mahabharata till 1850, earth had been assumed spherical in all calculations. Semi-vertical angle of Kutub minar is equal to difference between true and mean latitude of Delhi.
The description on engraved verse must be of period of Prithviraj Chauhan or earlier-it means that similar script for sanskrit was in use at that time. Rest download PDF here.