Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
SuryaMitraTemples : Part 1
The Multan Sun temple of Mitra is mentioned by Greek Admiral Skylax, who visited the place during reign of Darius I (515 BC). Alexander also visited the temple of Multan and was wonder struck at the excellence of the hindu human art and science with which the Sun Mitra idol was built and suspended in the air by the pull of magnet. Multan is also spoken by the Chinese pilgrim Huen –Tsang, as flourishing city with the temple of sun, which he falls U-fa-Tsun (Aditya) the sun god made of gold and expensive stones. The Multan Surya Temple’s granduer is mentioned by these people in detailed. The temple idol which is now no more was hanging in air with the help of various magnets just like in Konark. There was a Kund in front of temple just like in all other Surya temple.
Multan was the capital of one of the provinces of the Hindu kingdom of Sind, before the invasion of the Arabs. King Chach was the ruler and whose sun King Dahir was last hindu king of the area.
From the history of Mahabharta times, a city named Sambapura was on the bank of Chandrabhag (Chenab) river which was built by Samba. The place is also known as Moolahsthan (Multan) and associated with Narasimha avatar and Prahlad episode. One of the twelfth form of Adity (Surya) named Mitra Surya Temple was built by Samba after getting cured from leprosy. Samba was cursed by Krishn in the famous #Raivataka garden for leprosy. This Mitra site is associated with Brahma where he did yagna after which the thousand rays where divided in 12 parts and was born from Aditi. They were known as Dvadas (12) Adityas. The ruler of these 12 forms of energies of Surya are Indra, Dhata, Parjanya, Pusa, Tvasta, Yama(Aryam), Bhaga, Vivaswan, Visnu, Amsuman, Varuna and Mitra. There are evidences from world for worshiping Mitra Sun god, entire Rome was built on remains of Mitra Temples.
After the birth of Mitra, Mitra energy was position on the bank of Chandrabhag for welfare of universe. The place was known as Mitravana. Adhyay 24 of Samba Puran suggests that Samba after taking permission from Krshn to cure his leprosy, he moved to the north from Dvaravati (MulDwarka) to Sindhu river from where he crossed the great river Chandrabhag. While doing the Tap he became very thin. His leprosy was cured by surya energy and it’s one of the few leprosy cure documented in late history. He further established a Mitra Surya Temple named “Chanark” on the sacred bank of river Chandrabhaga, which now is famous as Multan Surya Mandir.
Temple was made and the Murti was established by Samba in the area of Mitravan on the bank of Chandrabhag. The image established was crafted by capable hands of Viswakarma. Adhyay 26 describes the crafting of the Murti. The Murti was crafted on the Kalpavrisha woods on the Himlayas in Sakadvipa. After establishing the temple he went back to Dvaravati. From there he mounted on garuda and went in search of Magas in SakaDvipa. 18 families of Mag Brahmans who were the most pious, religious, Karmyogis and expert in Vedas were brought from Saka Dvipa for worship of the Mitra Surya Temple as per Surya Siddhanth. Adhyaay 29 speaks about that there were no images of Surya in ancient times and worship of surya was done in Mandala form. The credit goes to Viswakarma who first crafted figure based image of Surya. He also sets rules and requirements for establishment of main sanctum & sanctorum of Surya Temple.
#Rules & Requirements: Ground earth should be fragrant, delicate and polished. The ground with stones, husk, bones, glass, salinity and charcoal are forbidden. Temple building should involve the participation of all four varnas. The ground which creates sound like cloud or drum, can grow plants/trees, and are of Shukl (white), Rakht(red), Peet(yellow) and Krishn (black) color should be chosen for construction of temple. After selecting the ground, it should be smeered with cow dung in an area of four hand circumference and in exact centre make a hole of One hand & 10 angulas. Take out the mud from the pit and fill the pit with the same soil. If that much of soil fills the pit, it is of ordinary quality. If not filled it is of inferior and if dugout soil becomes more than its sign of prosperity. The foundation of temple can be east facing and sometimes west facing as well. The image to be installed properly facing east and place of installation must be correctly known. The south side of the temple should have Snanagrih (Bathroom) and in north side there should be Agnihotra grih. In north again, Shankar and mothers place should be built. Brahma should be established in west side and Vishnu should be established in north side. On the right side of Surya bharya Nishubha and on left side bharya Rajni should be placed.
#Pingala and #Dandnayak should be placed right and left side of Surya respectively. Exactly on the front side of Surya, Ma Lakshmi and Ma Saraswati should be there. Sons of Surya, the two #Ashwin (Nasatya & Dasra) should be placed outside the Sanctum on the both side of door at first line. In second line at the door two Dwarpaals should be placed and in third line two #Kalmaash Bird should be place. Similarly in the south direction #Jandak and #Maathar should be installed. #Prapnuyaan and #Kshutaap should be western direction and in northern part Kuber and Som should be placed. Towards more northernly side #Revanta & #Vinayaka should be installed. Two mandalas should be placed, and the portion in the temple of Surya that remains in left and right, place for arghya should be made. At the time of rising (udaybela), arghya should be given in mandala of southern portion and at setting time (Ashtbela), the arghya should be given in northern mandala. In front portion, four horned Vyomdev and four astra should be placed. The mandala in the middle of the Aditya image should be made by thread like Rashmikiran (First ray) of Surya. This ends the rules of placement of devtas in Surya Mandir in respective order.
#Types_of_Images: Gold, Silver, Copper, Soil, Stone, Tree and Sketch/Painting can be used for image.For making wooden image good trees are Madhuka, Devdaru, Rajavrksha, Sandal, Bilva, Amba, Khadira, Champa, Neem, Shriparna, Vasana, Saral, Arjun or red Sandal. Milk producing trees are weak and not suitable. The complete procedures can be learnt from adhyay 30 of samba puran.
#Features_of_Images: In generic the Surya (Sun) dev image should be three and half hands size. The image of One hand size is #PeaceGiver, two hand size is #GiverOfProsperity, three hand size is Fulfiller of all #Desires and three and half hand image is auspicious for abundant #food and #welfare. It is believed that there are total twelve Ark Sthal (अर्क स्थल) Surya Mandir in India built in various time period for betterment and disease free society of which most of them have been destroyed by invaders. The idol which shines at the bottom, middle and top from all sides is called as Gandharvi and is giver of abundant wealth and food (Dhan-dhanya). Further micro rules related to idol making, installation, Dhwaja Aarohan, Yearly Rath Yatra and other recommendation can be read in adhyaya 31st – 40th.
Story of First Surya Temple (#Konark) established by Vaiswata Manu: The image installed by Samba in City of Samba was made by Viswakarma from Kalpa Tree is currently identified as Multan Surya Mandir. Similar image Viswakarma made in past for Vaiswata Manu which was established in Konark. Viswakarma after crafting the image in Himlayas, for transportation the image was made to enter in Chandrabhaga river and from Chandrabhag it entered in Vaipasa river from Vaipasa it entered into Satadrava river and from here it entered in Yamuna. It was brought in Ganga from Ganga it was brought into Mahanadi ModGanga and finally into Salt Ocean (Ganga Sagar). Vaisvata Manu made a Temple of Surya at Konark.
By ancient Indian scientific knowledge forum