Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
The following chapter hasbeen taken from the historical accounts of :
▪︎Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah : Tarikh-i Firishta
▪︎Jayanaka Kashmiri (1191): Pṛthvīrāja Vijaya
▪︎Minhaj-i-Siraj Juzjani (1260): شنسبانی
▪︎Merutunga (1306): Prabandhacintāmaṇi
▪︎ʽAbd al-Qadir Badayuni (1595): Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh
▪︎Iqtidar Husain Siddiqi (2010): Indo-Persian Historiography Up to the Thirteenth Century. Primus Books. ISBN 978-81-908918-0-6.
▪︎Tripat Sharma (1987). Women in Ancient India, from 320 A.D. to 1200 A.D. Ess Ess. ISBN 978-81-7000-028-0
▪︎The Sundha Hill inscription.
▪︎Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 4413150.
▪︎Udayaprabha Suri : Sukrita-Kirti-Kallolini
▪︎Frye, R.N. (1975). “The Ghaznavids and Ghūrids”. In Frye, R.N. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 5: The Iranian world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–165. ISBN 0-521-20093-8.
● #MohammadGhori, also known as Mahmud of Ghor or Mu’izz ad-Din Mohammad Ghori was the 13th Sultan of the Ghurid Dynasty. The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the successful invasion of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi in 1011CE.
After having helped his brother in expanding the western frontiers of the Ghurid Dynasty, Mohammad Ghori began to focus on India. Mu’izz’s campaign against the Qarmatians rulers of Multan in 1175 had ended in victory. He turned south, and led his army from Multan to Uch and then across the desert towards the Chaulukya capital of Anhilwara (modern-day Patan in Gujarat) in 1178. On the way, Muizz suffered a defeat at the Battle of Kayadara, during his first campaign against an Indian Kingdom. However, he later successfully invaded several parts of Northern India after defeating Maharaja Prithivi Raj Chauhan in the 17th Battle of Tarain with the assistance of a Rajput King ‘Raja Jaychand’ in 1192CE. Thus, Mohammed Ghori is credited by Islamic scholars all around the world for becoming the 1st Muslim Sultan to conquere a huge portion of the Indian Subcontinent.
● #NaikiDevi was the Queen of the Chalukyan-Solanki Kingdom, born to Raja Shivachitta Paramardin, who was the Chief of Kadamba Kingdom of Goa. Naiki Devi was the wife of Raja Ajayapala, who ascended the throne of Gujarat in 1171 CE. However, king Ajayapala died in 1175 and ruled for only 4 years.
● #Mularaja or Mularaja II is said to have ascended to the throne after the death of his Father Ajayapala. The new king was a minor, so his mother Maharani Naiki Devi ascended the throne and effectively ruled on his behalf. Mularaja is said to have died at a very young age.
● #BhimDev or Bhola Bhima II succeeded his brother Mularaja after his death at a young age. Taking advantage of his young age, some of his mandalikas (provincial governors) rebelled against him in order to establish independent states. His loyal feudatory Arnoraja came to his rescue, and died fighting the rebels. Arnoraja’s descendants Lavanaprasada and Viradhavala became powerful during Bhima’s reign, and ultimately established the sovereign Vaghela Kingdom.
■ Battle of #Kayadara or Kasahrada:
After capturing Sindh & Multan, Mohammad Ghori crossed the deserts & marched towards Gujarat.
Gujarat was under the administration of the Chalukyan Solanki Kingdom. When the news of Ghurid invasion reached the Kingdom, Queen Naiki Devi who ruled as a regent for the minor prince Mularaja II, started her attempt to unify all the native kingdoms. The Chaulukyan forces included the armies of their feudatories such as the Naddula Chahamana ruler Kelhanadeva, the Jalor Chahamana ruler Kirtipala, and the Arbuda Paramara ruler Dharavarsha. The Ghurid army despite being larger in numbers suffered heavy losses. The War Elephants used by the Indians heavily ravaged the Turko-Afghan forces and Mohammad Ghori had to retreat.