HINDUISM AND SANATAN DHARMA

Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.

Arab world copied Ancient Indian math and science

Arab world and ancient Indian Knowledge of Science and mathematics
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The book al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa’l-muqabala meaning The Condensed Book of Calculation by Restoration and Comparison was written about 830 A.D by Mohammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi. The preface reads:

… what is easiest and most useful in arithmetic, such as men constantly require in cases of inheritance, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and trade, and in all their dealings with one another…Students who deal with x,y,z and a,b,c in their Algebra textbooks would scarce believe that the preface leads to such complications in life. But before he wrote this seminal work, he wrote On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals in 825 A.D. which was part translation and part explication of Indian numerals as propounded by Brahmagupta. Brahmagupta too was a court astronomer in Ujjain like al-Khwarizmi, and he wrote Brahma Sputa Siddhanta in 628 A.D. where he used and defined zero for the first time. He also wrote Khandakhadyaka in 665 which is more about astronomy. The Arab world learnt about the Indian system of counting when the second Abbasid Caliph invited a scholar from Ujjain called Kanka to his court and who brought Brahmagupta’s seminal concept of zero. This was translated into Arabic by Al Fazaii around 770 A.D.

In the year 156 (772/773 AD) there came to Caliph al-Mansur a man (an Ujjain scholar by the name of Kanka) from India, an expert in hisab (computation) bringing with him a work called Sindhind (i.e. Siddhanta) concerning the motions of the planets.”The period of assimilation and syncretisation of earlier Hellenistic, Indian, and Sassanidastronomy. The first astronomical texts that were translated into Arabic were of Indian and Persian origin. The most notable of the texts was Zij al-Sindhind, an 8th-century Indian astronomical work that was translated by Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari and Yaqub ibn Tariq after 770 CE under the supervision of an Indian astronomer who visited the court of caliph Al-Mansur in 770. Another text translated was the Zij al-Shah, a collection of astronomical tables (based on Indian parameters) compiled in Sasanid Persia over two centuries. Fragments of texts during this period indicate that Arabs adopted the sine function (inherited from India) in place of the chords of arc used in Greek trigonometry.

It is also important to note that Scholar named Al-Beruni who accompanied Mohammed of Ghazni in India expeditions- translated many of Sanskrit Hindu scientific works into Arabic and Persian(Kitab ta’rikh al-Hind).Hence ancient Muslim world of middle east can be credited for works learned from ancient Sassanid and Indian civilizations(after invasions) which travelled later to Western countries (they assumed Arabs found it because of land trade route via silk road until 15th century,after which they had direct contact with Ancient India via sea).

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