Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
The following chapter hasbeen taken from the historical accounts of :
▪︎Lansford, Tom (16 February 2017). Afghanistan at War: From the 18th-Century Durrani Dynasty to the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598847604.
▪︎”Hari Singh Nalwa” (PDF). http://www.indiapost.gov.in. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
▪︎Surinder Singh Johar (1982). Hari Singh Nalwa. Sagar. p. 13.
▪︎Sachdeva, Krishan Lal (1993), “Hari Singh Nalwa – A Great Builder”, in Kapur, P. S. (ed.), Perspectives on Hari Singh Nalwa, Jalandhar: ABS Publications, ISBN 8170720567
▪︎Sandhu, Autar Singh (1935), General Hari Singh Nalwa, Lahore: Cunningham Historical Society
▪︎Jaques, Tony. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 790. ISBN 9780313335365. Retrieved 31 July 2010.
▪︎Tarzi, Amin H. “DŌSTMOḤAMMAD KHAN”. Encyclopædia Iranica (Online ed.). United States: Columbia University.
▪︎DŌST MOḤAMMAD KHAN – Encyclopaedia Iranica”. iranicaonline.org. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
● Sardar #HariSinghNalwa (1791–1837) was Commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Fauj, the army of the #SikhEmpire, which originated from the north-western parts of the Indian Subcontinent & ruled from the #Punjab region to Khyber Pass in the west, to Kashmir in the north, Sindh in the south, & regions of Tibet in the east. He also served as governor of Kashmir, Peshawar and Hazara. He established a mint on behalf of the Sikh Empire to facilitate revenue collection in Kashmir & Peshawar.
Hari Singh was born in Gujranwala, in the Majha region of Punjab to Dharam Kaur & Gurdial Singh Uppal, in a Uppal Khatri family. After his father died in 1798, he was raised by his mother. In 1801, at the age of ten, he took Amrit Sanchar & was initiated as a Khalsa. In 1804, at the age of fourteen, his mother sent him to the court of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. During a hunt in 1804, a tiger attacked him & Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is said that he killed the tiger by himself bare handedly by tearing the tiger apart from its mouth, thus earning the title “Nalwa” probably meaning tiger-claw/tiger-killer.
● The #BarakzaiDynasty was founded by Emir Dost Mohammad Khan after the decline of #Durrani-Abdali Dynasty. Mohammadzai are the most prominent & powerful sub-tribe of Barakzai, they belong to a branch of the Abdali dynasty, & are primarily centered around Kandahar. They can also be found in other provinces throughout Afghanistan as well across the border in the Pakistan’s Balochistan Province.
Payendah Khel are descendants of Payendah Khan, head of the Mohammadzai branch of the Barakzai tribe during the reigns of Timur Shah Abdali & Zaman Shah Abdali, who became rulers of Afghanistan with the decline of the Sadduzai.
Musahiban or Telai are the descendants of Sultan Mohammad Khan “Telai”, ruler of Peshawar, brother of Dost Muhammad Khan. The family of Nadir and Zahir Shah were closely related to Amanullah Khan through marriages.
● Battle of #Peshawar : In 1834, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ordered Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa to recapture Peshawar from Afghan control. After a brief fighting, Hari Singh Nalwa recaptured the city & took Sultan Mohammad Khan as a prisoner of war. The news of the capture of Peshawar & Sultan Mohammad Khan quickly reached Kabul. A large Afghan force under his brother, Dost Mohammad Khan, arrived in support of him, but was again defeated by the Sikh Army under Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa. Emir Dost Mohammad Khan fled away to #Kabul.