Hinduism,Cosmos ,Sanatan Dharma.Ancient Hinduism science.
The following chapter hasbeen taken from the historical accounts of :
▪︎Eaton, Richard M. (2005), A Social History of the Deccan: 1300–1761, Cambridge University Press, pp. 15–16, ISBN 978-0-52125-484-7
▪︎Hemingway, F. R. (1915), Madras District Gazetters: Godavari (PDF), Government of Madras
▪︎”Khan-i Jahan Maqbul Tilangani Mausoleum”. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2007.
▪︎Rama Rao, M. (1947), “The Fall of Warangal and After”, Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, 10: 292–297, JSTOR 44137150
▪︎Somasekhara Sarma, Mallampalli (1945), A Forgotten Chapter of Andhra History: History of the Musunūri Nāyaks, Andhra University/Ananda Press
▪︎Chattopadhyaya, B. D. (1998), Representing the Other? Sanskrit Sources and the Muslims, New Delhi: Manohar, ISBN 978-8173042522
▪︎P. V. P. Sastry (1978). N. Ramesan (ed.). The Kākatiyas of Warangal. Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh. OCLC 252341228
▪︎Jackson, Peter (1999), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3
● The #Kakatiya Kingdom was an indigenous kingdom originated in the southern parts of the Indian Subcontinent. It ruled most of eastern Deccan region comprising present day Telangana & Andhra Pradesh, & parts of eastern Karnataka & southern Odisha between 12th & 14th centuries. Their capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal. Early Kakatiya rulers served as feudatories to Rashtrakutas & Western Chalukyas for more than two centuries.
In 1303CE, Turkish invader Alauddin Khilji of the Khilji Dynasty of #DelhiSultanate launched an invation on the Kakatiya territory which ended up as a disaster for the Turks. But after the successful siege of Warangal in 1310, when Alauddin Khilji’s Army General & Homosexual partner Malik Kafur captured many Yadava & Andhra civilians, the Kakatiya King Prataparudra II was forced to pay annual tribute to the Khiljis.
In 1323CE another Turkish invader Muhammad-bin-Tughluq of the Tughluq Dynasty of Delhi Sultanate invaded & faced stiff resistance by the Kakatiyan army, but the Kakatiyan Army was finally defeated. However, later Musunuri Nayaks united the various Telugu clans & recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate.
● The #Tughluq Dynasty, also known as Qutlugh Dynasty was an invading dynasty of Turkic origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.
The invading Turkish Khilji dynasty ruled the Delhi Sultanate before 1320. Its last ruler, Khusro Khan was a Baradu-Hindu slave who had been forcibly converted to Islam & then served the Delhi Sultanate as the general Khilji army for some time. He also acted as a passive homosexual to maintain his status & position. Alauddin’s son Mubarak Shah Khilji fell in love with Khusro Khan. Khusro Khan, along with Malik Kafur, had led numerous military campaigns on behalf of Alauddin Khilji, to expand the Sultanate and plunder non-Muslim kingdoms in the Indian Subcontinent. Later after the death of Alauddin Khilji, Khusro Khan assassinated the licentious son of Alauddin, Mubarak Shah Khilji & became the new Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate. He then enlisted several Baradu-Hindu soldiers in his new Army at Bahilwal near Mount Abu. According to ‘Tughluq Nama’, this army included 10,000 Baradu horsemen & was commanded by several Hindu chiefs (rais & ranas). Thus, the Islamic Scholars & aristocracy of the Delhi Sultanate declared Khusro Khan an apostate (traitor of Islam), & they invited another Turk invader Ghazi Malik to punish & remove Khusro Khan. In 1320, Ghazi Malik launched an attack with the use of an army of Khokhar tribesmen & killed Khusro Khan to assume power. Thus, the new Tughluq Dynasty replaced the Khilji Dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. The dynasty ended in 1413.
● The invasion of #Warangal :
Prince Muhammad-bin-Tughluq, the eldest son of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq or Ghiasuddin Tughlaq or Ghazi Malik, founder of the Tughluq Dynasty captured Warangal from Kakatiya Kingdom in 1323CE. He started demolishing many Ancient Temples & forcefull conversions of the indigenous community. He then converted the imprisoned Kakatiya Army commander, Mala Nagaya Yundharudu, & named him Malik Maqbul Jahan Khan, the new Slave-King of Warangal. Jahan Khan remained loyal to Islam & continued the Turkish policies of forceful conversion. In 1335CE, #KapayaNayaka defeated Jahan Khan & recaptured Warangal. After being defeated Malik Maqbul Jahan Khan fled away to Delhi.